1. In Vitro Technologies


  2. BulletPrimary cultures of rodent CNS and PNS neurons, cancer cells, immune cells and immortalized mammalian cell lines.

  3. BulletLive-cell functional ion imaging and ROS/RNS/NO imaging (dye-based) in cultured CNS/PNS neurons and mammalian cells.

  4. BulletPatch-clamp electrophysiology.

  5. BulletBiochemical analysis of protein expression, function and tissue/cellular/sub-cellular localization.

  6. BulletImmuno-histo/cytochemical and microscopic (epifluorescence and confocal) analysis of CNS and PNS tissue sections, as well as cultured neurons for the detection and quantification of anatomical/structural changes, as well as expression and localization of proteins therein.

  7. BulletMolecular biology and structure-function relationship studies on neuronal proteins, receptors and channels.


  8. In Vivo Technologies Utilizing Rodents


  9. BulletMouse models of human diseases, such as metastatic bone cancers, obesity, inflammation, and stroke-reperfusion injury.

  10. BulletGenetically-modified mouse models.

  11. BulletIn vivo pharmacology.


  12. Behavioral Assessments in Rodents

  13. BulletPain-related behaviors: cutaneous heat and mechanical hypersensitivity, relative weight bearing on paws, grip-strength analysis (both fore and hind limb), paw/joint pressure-induced hypersensitivity, and hot/cold sensitivity of paws.

  14. BulletMotor-related behaviors: automated gait analysis, in-cage activity measurements, and in-cage running wheel activity measurements.

  15. BulletMigraine/Photophobia: light/dark box assay.

  16. BulletUn-evoked/ongoing pain behaviors: several under development.